Key Points Of The Constitution Of India
East India Company (Part – 1)
The East India Company set foot in India to trade.
Establishment of East India Company Done in 1600.
The East India Company started trading in India, especially in West Bengal.
Sir Thomas Rowe obtained permission from the Mughal Emperor Jahangir to set up trading posts at Surat and elsewhere, and the first set up was established in Surat in 1613.
After the defeat of Siraj-ud-Daulah at the Battle of Plassey in 1757, Bengal was dominated by the company and gradually the civil rights were also acquired by the company.
Thus, with the acquisition of royal rights by the company along with trade in India, phased acts were enacted to control all this.
East India Company (Part-2)
1. Regulating Act 1773:
The Act was passed by the British Parliament to control and manage the operations of the East India Company
This act was the first time that legal action was taken by Britain in India and it started its dominance in India.
The main features of this act were as follows:
The Act made the Governor of Bengal the ‘Governor General of Bengal’. The company was controlled by the Court of Directors.
The governors of the Madras and Mumbai presidencies were subordinated to the Governor-General of Bengal.
A circular of four persons was constituted to assist the Governor-General under this Act.
Under this Act, the Supreme Court was established at Fort William, Calcutta in 1774.
(Warren Hastings was appointed the first Governor General of Bengal in India.)
East India Company (Part – 3)
2. Pitts India Act 1784:
The Pitts India Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1784 to address the shortcomings of the Regulating Act of 1773.
➜ whose main features were as follows:
The Act created a Privy Council of 6 members.
The governor general was given more power in matters like revenue and war.
The East India Company was governed by a Board of Control called the Board of Control, the members of which were appointed from the Privy Council.
The then Prime Minister of Britain was William Pitt.
East India Company (Part-4)
3. Charter Act 1793:T
The Charter Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1793,
➜ The main features were as follows.
The Governor-General was given more power than the governors of other presidencies.
Approval must be sought for the appointment of Governor General, Governor and Commander-in-Chief.
The East India Company was empowered to issue business licenses to individuals and company employees.
East India Company (Part – 5)
4. Charter Act 1813:
The Charter Act 1813 was passed by the British Parliament 20 years after the Charter Act 1793.
➜ The main features were as follows:
The East India Company’s monopoly on trade other than tea was removed.
₹ 1,00,000 was provided for the development of education.
Christian missionaries were allowed to preach the religion.
East India Company (Part-6)
5. Charter Act 1833:
The Charter Act 1833 was passed by the British Parliament 20 years after the Charter Act 1833.
➜ whose features were as follows:
The Governor-General of Bengal was made the Governor-General of India.
Lord William Bentick became the first Governor General of India.
The legislative powers of the governors of the Madras and Bombay presidencies were abolished and the new laws became known as the Acts.
The operation of the Int India Company as a mere commercial company was equated. Now it has become an administrative body.
1. Dr. BR Ambedkar
2. N. Gopalaswamy Iyengar
3. Alladi Krishnaswamy Aiyar
4. Dr. K.M. Munshi
5. Syed Mohammad Sadullah
6. n. Madhavrao
7. T.T. Krishnamachari
At the beginning of this Constitutional Drafting Committee, Shri. L. Mitra was a member, but N. Madhavrao resigned due to health reasons and became a member.
Also DP Khetan was a member of this committee. T. Krishnamachari became a member of the committee.
The constitution was drafted by this committee after receiving various suggestions from different committees.
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